Michæl Frede, A. A. Long, David Sedley's A Free Will: Origins of the Notion in Ancient Thought PDF

By Michæl Frede, A. A. Long, David Sedley

ISBN-10: 0520268482

ISBN-13: 9780520268487

Where does the idea of unfastened will come from? How and while did it increase, and what did that improvement contain? In Michael Frede's considerably new account of the background of this concept, the idea of a loose will emerged from robust assumptions in regards to the relation among divine windfall, correctness of person selection, and self-enslavement as a result of flawed selection. Anchoring his dialogue in Stoicism, Frede starts off with Aristotle--who, he argues, had no proposal of a unfastened will--and ends with Augustine. Frede exhibits that Augustine, faraway from originating the belief (as is usually claimed), derived such a lot of his pondering it from the Stoicism constructed by means of Epictetus.

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The will thus conceived can be a good will or a bad will, depending on whether the choices we make in virtue of it are good choices or bad choices.

The Aristotle on Choice without a Will / 27 reason why he distinguishes willing and choosing is not that willing and choosing are altogether different but that choosing is a very special form of willing. One may will or want something which is unattainable. One may will to do something which one is unable to do. One may will something without having any idea as to what one should do to attain it. Choosing is different. 10 Thus one cannot choose to be elected to an office, since whether one is elected depends on others.

But, if we go back to Aristotle, this is not quite so. All Aristotle is committed to is that, if something is up to us, we can choose to do it. We can also fail to choose to do it. But to fail to choose to do it, given Aristotle’s notion of choice, is not the same as choosing not to do it. We saw this in the case of akrasia. One can choose to follow reason. But if one fails to follow reason and acts on a nonrational desire, it is not because one chooses not to follow reason and, rather, chooses to do something else.

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A Free Will: Origins of the Notion in Ancient Thought by Michæl Frede, A. A. Long, David Sedley


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