By Hammad M. Cheema, Reza Mahmoudi, Arthur H.M. van Roermund
The promising excessive facts expense instant functions at millimeter wave frequencies commonly and 60 GHz particularly have received a lot recognition lately. even though, demanding situations with regards to circuit, format and measurements in the course of mm-wave CMOS IC layout need to be conquer earlier than they could develop into doable for mass market.60-GHz CMOS Phase-Locked Loops targeting phase-locked loops for 60 GHz instant transceivers elaborates those demanding situations and proposes ideas for them. The method point layout to circuit point implementation of the total PLL, besides separate implementations of person parts resembling voltage managed oscillators, injection locked frequency dividers and their combos, are integrated. additionally, to meet a few transceiver topologies concurrently, flexibility is brought within the PLL structure by utilizing new dual-mode ILFDs and switchable VCOs, whereas reusing the low frequency parts on the comparable time.
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Extra resources for 60-GHz CMOS Phase-Locked Loops
To achieve short interconnects, the latter should be placed very close to the inductor terminals (see Fig. 4a). The VCO output which needs to be measured by using a bond-pad is unavoidably long, so transmission lines whose impedance can be well controlled is employed for such connections. 1 Layout Problems and Solutions 41 There are a number of prescaler circuits possible for mm-wave synthesizers, one of which is based on injection locking (discussed in Chapter 4). Such a prescaler requires at least one inductor for a non-quadrature output and two for quadrature outputs.
2 Measurement Setups 49 although providing a quick way of measuring and characterizing circuits, leads to a variety of challenges particularly at mm-wave frequencies and will be discussed in this section. 1 Dedicated Instrumentation The first obvious requirement for on-wafer measurements is the set of equipment necessary for a particular measurement. At mm-wave frequencies, this points to setting-up a complete pool of dedicated and specialized equipment, cables, connectors, probes, adapters, waveguides and other such material.
58 G rad/s Â V. 5 G rad/s Â V. These parameters also require some safety margins to cater for PVT variations and are included during circuit design. The reference frequency for both front-ends is identical and equal to fref ¼ 300 MHz. The resulting division ratio range is N Â P ¼ 127–141 for the 40 GHz front-end and N Â P ¼ 190–212 for the 60 GHz front-end. The choice of the loop-bandwidth (oc) is an important step for the overall PLL design and a number of considerations have to be analyzed. Firstly, settling time which is defined as the time required by the loop to switch from one channel to another, is dictated by the chosen loop bandwidth.
60-GHz CMOS Phase-Locked Loops by Hammad M. Cheema, Reza Mahmoudi, Arthur H.M. van Roermund